Animal Tissue

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In this article i am going to share a important topic Animal Tissue Which is very important in many competitive exam. If you are preparing for any competitive like , NEET, AIIMS, GPAT etc. then you should also study about Animal Tissue along with Animal Cells. Many Questions from this topic can be asked. So preparation of Animal Tissue is most important. So

What is Tissue?

Tissue : A organised group of cells similar in structure, function and origin.
In a tissue cells my be dissimilar in structure and function but they are always similar in origin.

– Word animal tissue was coined by – Bichat.
– N. Grew coined the term for Plant Anatomy.
– Study of tissue Called – Histology.
– Histology word was given by – Mayer.
– Father of Histology – Bichat.
– Study of tissue is also called Microscopic anatomy.
– Founder of microscopic anatomy – Marcello Malpighi.

Types of Tissue

Based on functions & location tissues are classified into four types :

1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscular Tissue
4. Nervous Tissue

Types of tissue

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal.
Cells of epithelial tissue are scutoid shaped, tightly packed and form a continuous sheet. They have almost no intercellular spaces.

Word epithelium is composed of two words :
Epi – Upon, Thelio – grows

– A tissue which grows upon another tissue is called Epithelium.
– Cover external or internal surface.
– Cells are either single layered or multilayered.
– Cells are compactly arranged and there is no intercellular matrix.
– Cells of lowermost layer always rest on a non living basement membrane.
– Cells are capable of division and regeneration throughout the life.
– Free surface of the cells may have fine hair cilia or microvilli or may be smooth.
– Epithelial tissue is non-vascularised.

Due to absence/less of intercellular spaces blood vessels, lymph vessels are unable to pierce this tissue so blood circulation is absent in epithelium. Hence cells depend for their nutrients on underlying connective tissue.
Between epithelium & connective tissue, a thin non living acellular basement membrane is present which is highly permeable.

Basement membrane consist of 2 layers.

(a) Basal lamina : made up of glycoprotein, and secreted by epithelium cells.

(b) Fibrous lamina : Formed of collagen and reticular fibres suspended in mucopoly-saccharide which is matrix of connective tissue.

– So basement membrance is secreted by both epithelium and connective tissue. Mucopolysaccharide is present in the form of Hyaluronic acid which is composed of 2 components–N acetylglucosamine & glucuronic acid. Both these components are found in alternate form.

– NAG – GA – NAG –


CONNECTIVE TISSUE

As the name implies, connective tissue, tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organs, typically having relatively few cells embedded in an amorphous matrix.

– All connective Tissue in the body are developed from Mesoderm.
– O. Hartwig called them Mesenchyme because they originated from embryonic mesoderm.
– Only connective Tissue consititute 30% of total body weight.
– Most abundant and widely distributed in the body.
  (Muscle – 50%, Epithelium – 10% Nervous – 10%)

On the basis of matrix (Polysaccharides) connective tissue is of 3 types :

1. Connective Tissue Proper – Matrix soft and fibrous
2. Connective Tissue Skeleton – Dense and mineralized matrix. Due to deposition of minerals it becomes hard.
3. Connective tissue Vascular – Liquid and fibres free matrix.

– In all except blood, the cells secrete fibres of structural proteins called collagen or elastin.

COMPONENTS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Connective Tissue Proper is composed of three components :

  • (A) Different types of cells.
  • (B) Fibres.
  • (C) Matrix.

FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE-

There are two types of Fluid connective tissue : –

  • (1) Blood
  • (2) Lymph

    Matrix is liquid & fibre free

    BLOOD

    – Study of Blood – Haematology
    – Process of blood formation Haemopoiesis.
    – Colour – Red
    – PH – 7.4 (Slightly alkaline)
    – By weight – 7 to 8% of body weight
    – By volume – 5 – 6 litres in male and 4-5 litres in female.
    – Blood is a false connective tissue because

    • a. Cells of blood have no power of division.
    • b. Fibres are completely absent in blood.
    • c. Matrix of blood is produced and synthesized by liver and lymphoid organs.

    Composition of Blood

    – Liquid Part – Matrix – Plasma 55%.
    – Solid Part – Blood corpuscles – 45% (RBC, WBC & Platelets) [Formed Elements].
    – Packed cell volume – (PVC)% volume or Total number of blood corpuscles is blood.
    – Haematocrit Volume : – % volume or only number of RBC in blood.
    – PVC ~HV because 99% of Packel cell volume is completed by RBC & in rest 1% WBC & Platelets are present.

    PLASMA

    – Matrix of blood is called Plasma.
    – It is pale yellow in colour due to Urobillinogen. (Billirubin)

    Composition of plasma
    plasma consistent of 90% – 92% of water and 8-10f of Solid parts In which inorganic and organic compounds are present given below :

    Inorganic part of plasma – 0.9% in which –

  • 1. Ions – Na+ , K+ , Ca++, Cl–, HCO3+, Cl- , > Na+
  • 2. Salts – NaCl, KCl, NaHCO3, KHCO3
    Maximum : NaCl (also called as common salt.)

  • 3. Gases – O2, CO2, N2

    Each 100 ml of plasma contains 0.29% O2, 0.5% N2, 5% CO2 Present in dissolved form.

    Organic Part of Plasma – 7% – 9%

  • Proteins 6 – 7% Maximum
  • Albumin – 4% Maximum

    – Produced and synthesized by liver
    – Responsible to maintain BCOP (28 – 32 mm Hg.)
    Globulin : – 1.5% – 2.5 %
    – Ratio of Albumin & Globulin is 2 : 1.
    – Produce and secreted by liver and Lymphoid organs.
    – Transport or carry substance in body.
    – Destory bacteria virus & toxic substances.

    In blood 3 types of Globulins are present.

    • (i) alpha-Globulin – Produced by liver.
      E.g., Ceruloplasmin – Cu carrying protein.

    • (ii) Beta -Globulin – Produced by liver
      eg., Transferin – Fe carrying protein.

    • (iii) Gamma -Globulin – Produced by Lymphoid organs

    Present in the form of antibodies which destroy Bacteria, Virus & Toxic substance. Also called
    Immunoglobulins .These are of 5 types. (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD)

    – Prothrombin – 0.3% Produced by liver
    – Fibrinogen – 0.3% Prodcued by liver
    – Largest plasma protein .
    – Help in blood clotting.


    MUSCULAR TISSUE

    Muscle tissue or MUSCULAR TISSUE is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles’ ability to contract. Muscle tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis.

    Origin
    – It develop from the mesoderm of embryo.

    Special property

    – Contractibility is the special property of muscular tissue. The cells of muscular tissue can shorten considerably and return to original relaxed state. The muscle cells contract in a definite direction. Functions of muscular tissue.
    – Muscles support the bone and other structure.
    – Muscles are responsible for heart beat production of sound, etc.
    – Muscles brings movements of the body parts and locomotion of individual.
    – Muscles are required for delivering a baby.
    – 40% to 50% of body weight is contributed by muscles.

    TYPES OF MUSCLES

      (a) Muscles are of three types
      (b) Striated muscles
      (c) Unstriated muscles

      (d) Cardiac muscles

    NERVOUS TISSUE

    Nervous tissue, also called neural tissue or nerve tissue, is the main tissue component of the nervous system. The nervous system regulates and controls bodily functions and activities.
    Origin

    Nervous tissues originate from ectoderm of embryo.

    Special properties

    – The special properties of the cells of nervous tissues are excitability and conductivity.
    – The cells of nervous tissues are specialized for receiving stimuli and transmitting message.
    These tissue forms nervous system of the body and include the following parts :

    Composition
    Nervous tissue is formed of four types of cells –

      – Neurons

      – Neuroglia

      – Neuro-secretory cells

      – Ependymal cells

    Neurons

    – A neuron is a nerve cell with all its branches, Neuron is formed from neuroblast.
    – It is structural and functional unit of nervous system.

    Neuron is the longest cell of the body.

    Structure : Neurons is formed of two parts

  • (A) Cyton
  • (B) Nerve processes

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    So that was Basic information about Animal Tissue, its types and important topics for competitive exam. Download Animal Tissue pdf

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