What is Biology? Standard Notes of Biology in PDF

What is Biology? Concept Of Biology PDF

Table of Contents

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular intractions, physiogical mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concept that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recignizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity,and evolution as the gngine the propels the creation and extinction of species.living organisms are open system that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

Sub – dieciplines of biology are defined by the research method employed and the kind of system studied : theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechnism underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non – living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.

Branches Of Biology

These are the many branches comes in biology which is given below.

  • Anatomy – the study of organisms structure
  • Comparative anatomy – the study of evolution of species through similarities and difference in their anatomy
  • Histology – the study of tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
  • Astrobiology ( also known as exobiology exopaleontology, and bioastronomy ) – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe
  • Biochemistry – the study of the chemiCal reaction required for life to exist and function, useually a focus on the cellular level.
  • Biotechnology – the study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetics modification and synthetic biology.
  • Synthetic biology – research integrating biology and engineering ; construction of biological function not found in nature.
  • Cell biology – the study of the cell ae a compele unit, and thr molecular and chemical intraction that occur witnin a living cell
  • Immunology – the study of the immune system.
  • Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms ( microorganisms ) and their intractions with other living things.
  • Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry.
  • Pharamacology – the study of the interaction between drugs and organisms.
  • Pysiology – the study of the functions and mechnism occurring in living organisms.
  • Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases ( also called plant pathology )


    Nature and Scope of Biology :

    Unit 1: Diversity of Life

    1. Systematics
    2. Viruses
    3. Kingdom Monera
    4. Kingdom Protista
    5. Fungi, Lichen and Mycorrhiza

    Unit 2: Kindom Plantae

    6. Plant Classification
    7. Algae
    8. Bryophyta
    9. Pteridophyta
    10. Gymnosperms
    11. Angiosperms

    Unit 3 : Kingdom Animalia

    12. Evolutionary Trends & Classification of Animals
    13. Protozoa
    14. Non-Chordates
    15. Chordates

    Unit 4 : Cell biology

    16. Tools and Techniques in Cytology
    17. Cell as a Unit of Life
    18. Biomembrane
    19. Structural Organization of Cell
    20. Biomolecules
    21. Enzymes
    22. Cellular Metabolism
    23. Cell Reproduction

    Unit 5 : Evolution

    24. Origin of Life
    25. Relationship Among Organisms and Evidences of Evolution
    26. Theories of Evolution
    27. Human Evolution

    Unit 6 : Structural and Organisation in Plant and Animal

    28. Plant Taxonomy
    29. Morphology of Flowering Plants
    30. Anatomy of Flowering Plants
    31. Animal Tissue
    32. Integumentary System
    33. Morphology and Anatomy of Animals (Frog, Cockroach, Rabbit, Earthworm)

    Unit 7: Plant Pysiology

    34. Water Relations of Plants


    Books Name : Concept of Biology.
    Number of pages 707 Pages
    Size Of PDF : 10.20 MB



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