What are Crude Drugs? And their Classifications
CRUDE DRUGS – The term crude drugs genrally applies to the products from plant and animal origin found in raw form.
However” the term is also applied to inclusion of pharmaceutical product from mineral kingdom in original form & not necessarily only of organic origin such as kaolin ,bentonite etc.
Crude drugs are further divided into
two groups :-
1. Organized (cellular) :- those crude drugs material which represent a part of the plant and therefore , made up cells
2. Unorganized (acellular):- unorganized drug are a diverse group of solid and liquid material, Which don not consist of parts of plants & obtained from natural source by a veriety of extraction procedures.
PHARMACOLOGIACL (THERAPEUTIC )
This system of classification involves the grouping of crude drugs according
to the pharmacological action of their chief active constituents or their theraputic uses. Regardless of morphology , taxonomical status or chemical relationship , the drugs are
grouped togather , provided they exhibit Similar pharmacological action . The cascara , castor oil ,senna , jalap, colocynth are grouped togather as purgative or laxative because of their common pharmacological action.
Similarly , Gentian , cinchona , nux vomica and swertia are grouped as bitters.
Some of the drug could be classified under two pharmacological heading since they exhibit two different action for example :- Cinchona is classified both as antimalarial and bitter tonic … An outline for pharmacological classification of crude drugs is as follows :-
A) Drugs acting on gastro-intestinal tract
- 1. Bitters – Gentian, Quassia Cinchona.
- 2. Carminatives – Dill, Mentha, Cardamom.
- 3. Emetics – ipecacuanha .
- 4. Anti- amoebics – kuruchi, ipecacuanha.
- 5. Bulk Laxative – Agar , ispaghula, Banana.
- 6. Purgative – senna , castor oil.
- 7. Peptic Ulcer Treatment – Derivatives of Glycyrrhetinic acid (Liquorice ), Raw Banana.
B. Drugs acting on respiratory system
- 1. Expectorants – Liquorice, ipecacuanha,vasaka.
- 2. Antiexpectorants – stramonium leaves (atropine )
- 3. Antitussive – Opium ( Codeine Noscapine ).
- 4. Bronchodilators – Ephedra , tea (Theophylline)
C. Drugs acting on cardio vascular system
- 1. Cardiotonics – Digitalis, squill, Strophanthus .
- 2. Cardiac depressants – Cinchona (quinidine), veratrum.
- 3. Vasco – constrictors – Ergot, (Ergotamine ) Ephedra .
- 4. Anti – Hypertensive – Rauwolfia.
D. Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system
- 1. Adremergic – Ephedra
- 2. Cholinergic – Physostigma, Pilocarpus
- 3. Anticholinergic – belladonna, datura.
E. Drugs acting on cental nervous system
- 1. Central analgesics – opium (Morphine)
- 2. CNS stimulants – coffee ( caffeine )
- 3. Analeptics – Nux-vomica , Lobelia,Camphor .
- 4. CNS Depressants – Hyoscyamus, Belladonna , opium (Morphine, codeine )
- 5. Hallucinogenics – cannabis , poppy Latex.
F. Antispasmodics –
- 1. Smooth muscle relaxants – opium ( papaverine ) ,Datura, hyoscyamus.
- 2. Skeletal muscle relaxants – curare
G. Anticancer –
- 1. Quassia.
- 2. male fern,
- 3. vidang.
I. Immuno – modulatory agents
- Ashwagandha , tulsi , ginseng ,
Asparagus , picrorrhiza kurroa
They modulate immune reponse and Principally include immunosuppressive agent and also biological reponse Modifiers which act by Immuno Stimulation .
J. Drugs acting on skin and
1. Mucous membrane:
- 1.olive oil,
- 2. wool
- 3. fat,
- 4. bees wax,
- 5. arachis oil,
- 6. Sesame oil,
- 7. balsam of tolu,
- 8. baslam of peru
K. Astringent –
Myrobalan, black catechu.
L. Antimalarial –
Cinchona , Artemisia
M. immunizing agents –
- 1.vaccines ,
- 2.sera ,
- 3. Toxoids ,
- 4. antitoxins.
N. Drugs acting Chemotherapy –
O. Local Anesthetics –
SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS
1. Seeds-Nux – vomica, strophanthus, isabgol, cstor .
2. Leaves – senna ,Digitalis ,vasaka, Eucalyptus.
3. Bark – Cinchona , kurchi , cinnamon, Quaillaia.
4. Woods – Quassia, sandalwood Sassafras , red sanders.
5. Rhizomes – turmeric , ginger, valerian, podophyllums.
6. Flowers – clove, artemisia, saffron.
7. Fruit – coriander fennel, bael.
8. Entire drugs – Ephedra ,ergot, Cantharides & belladonna.
9. Dried lactices – opium, papain.
10. Resins – Balsam of tolu, myrrh, Asafoetida , benzoin.
11. Dried juices – Aloes ,Red gum.
12. Gums – Acacia, Tragacanth, Ghatti gum, Guar gum.
13. Dried Extracts – Gelatin, agar, Curare ,catechu.
This system of classification is more
Convenient for practical study especially when the chemical nature of the drugs is not clearly understood.