What is Diabetes? Its Types, Symptoms and treatments

Diabetes is most common disease in this modern world and it is spread in whole world. As of 2017, an estimated 425 million people had diabetes worldwide and 90% of them are affected by type 2 diabetes. In this post you are learning about What is diabetes, its types, symptoms and treatments.

What is Diabetes

Diabetes is a syndrome in which the body fails to make proper use of sugar. The diabetic syndrome is due to a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin. Hence, this diseases is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia ( increase in blood glucose level). it leads to variety of complication like cardiovascular, renal, neurological and ocular problems..

Classification of Diabetes :

The WHO classified diabetes in the following categories :

1. Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

  • a. Insulin dependent diabetes Mellitus (IDDM Type -1)
  • b. Non – Insulin dependent diabates Mellitus (NIDDM Type -2 )
  • c. Malnutrition related diabetes Mellitus (MRDM )
  • d. Other types of secondary to pancreatic disease, hormonal imbalance, drug induced or genetic disorder..

    2. Impaired Glucose Toleranace (IGT )

    3. Gastrointestinal Diabetes Mellitus (GDM )

    1. Diabetes Mellitus :–

    a. The juvenile onset type or insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM )

    This types of diabetes useually develops at a young age during first 40 year of life and has a very rapid onset. In this types of diabetes the pancreas produces very little or no insulin so adminstration of insulin is required hence it is called insulin dependent diabetes…

    b.) The adult or maturity onset type or non – insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM )
    TYPE 2
    This types of diabetes useually develops after 40 year of age or elderly person who are abese and progressess slowly. In this typs of diabetes, the pancreas produces inadequate amount of insulin. This types of diabetes can be controlled by dietary control alone and light exercise or along with oral hypoglycemic drugs..

    Signs and Symptoms :

    1. Frequently urination and passing large volume of urine.
    2. Increase thirst.
    3. Increased appetite
    4. Loss of weight.
    5. General weakness and fatigue.
    6. Pain in the legs.
    7. Lack of concentration
    8. Irritability
    9. Prone to infections
    10. Delayed wound healing..

    Cause for diabetes :

    The important causes of diabetes are :

    1. Pancreas diseases, defect in the synthesis of insulin or decrease in the number of beta cells..

    2. Heredity is also a contributory factor for diabetes.

    3. Sedentary life style and tack of exercise.

    4. Diet rich in carbohydrate and fats.

    5. Obesity is a known risk factor for diabetes.

    6. Infections with viruses like rubella and mumps.

    7. Social factors like occupation, material status, education, economic status and changes in life styles..

    Prevention and control :

    Prevention of diabetes is mentioned under three headings – primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

    A. Primary prevention :

    1. Preventive measures like maintenance of normal body weight, by diet control and appropriate physical exercise. The diet should be restricted in sugar and it should be rich in protein and fibres..

    2. Preventive measures like changes of sedentary life style, correction of over eating and reduction in weight..

    B. Secondary prevention :

    It includes adequate treatment to normalize the blood glucose level. Patients should take his care according to medical advice. He should check his urine sugar and blood sugar in a regular / routine manner. Treatment is done by control of diet and oral hypoglycemic drug or by diet control and insulin..

    C. Tertiary Prevention :

    Diabetes is a diseases which Produces many complication such as blindness, kindney failure, coronary thrombosis and gangrene of lower limb. So far the treatment of diabetes, specilized clinic called Diabetes clinics should be referred for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease..

    Treatment :

    Diet, phyical exercise and drugs are recommended for treatment should be done under the supervision of a qualified diabetologist and supervised by him once in three months. The patients should undergo full biochemical test, eye, checkup and obtain advice for foot care at least one a year.

    The commonly used drugs in controlling the diabetes are insulin which is adminstrered by parenteral route in case of insulin dependent diabetes.
    For non – insulin dependent diabetes various types of oral tablets are available. These tablet belong to a class of compounds known as sulphonylurea.

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