Lists of Respiratory diseases | RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

Respiratory disease, or respiratory tract disease, is a medical term that affect the respiratory organs and tissues including trachea, bronchi,  bronchioles, alveoli, pleurae, pleural cavity, that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing. here is the list of Respiratory tract disorders.

Lists of Respiratory diseases

1. TUBERCULOSIS

Bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection of several parts but common of lungs. Vaccination with B.C.G. ( Bacillus – Calmette – Guerin)

2. PLEURISY ( Pleuritis)

Inflammation of pleura or accumulation of pleural fluid. Presence of excess fluid in the pleural cavity is called hydrothorax. Presence of air in pleural space is called pneumothorax.

3. EMPHYSEMA

It is a permanent abnormal pathological inflation of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles due to destruction of pulmonary tissues especially alveolar septa and flattening of alveolar ducts. There is little alveolar elasticity. Lung size increases but ventilation is poor. Emphysema develops due to infection, smoking and chronic bronchitis. The disease cannot
be cured completely because it involves irreversible change in the alveoli. Bronchodilators, antibiotics and O2 therapy are used to provide relief and retard progression of disease.
Emphysema is preventable if care is taken to reduce exposure to smoke and air pollutants.

4. ASPHIXIA

Paralysis of respiratory centre due to excessive carbon dioxide commonly due to irreversible combination of carbon monoxide with haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin. It results in death. Common in closed rooms with coal burning, kerosene lamp.

5. PNEUMONIA

– It is a disease of lungs with an incubation period of 1-3 days and characterized by accumulation of mucus/ fluid with dead WBCs in alveoli and bronchioles so that breathing becomes difficult. It is of several types. Common pneumonia is caused by gram(+) nonmetal paired bacterium called Streptococcus or Diplococcus
pneumonia. Other bacterium, fungi, virus, mycoplasma and even some protozoans also produce the disease.

– Three types of individual are more susceptible to disease; elders, infants,
immune-compromised. The disease is of two types – bronchopneumonia ( young children, elderly person) and lobar pneumonia ( 10-50 years)

– The disease is transmitted through droplets. There is sudden chill, chest pain, cough with rusty mucoid sputum, rise in temperature, rapid shallow breathingand reduced oxygen level of blood due to poor gaseous exchange. Abdominal distension is also common. Useful drugs are erythromycin, tetracycline, sulphonamide. Bronchiodilator drugs provide some relief untreated pneumonia leads to death.

6. HYPOXIA ( Anoxia)

Shortage of oxygen supply to the body due to:

  • a. Normal shortage in air as on high mountain.
  • b. Anaemia.
  • c. Histotoxicity or poisoning of electron transport system.

    7. HICCOUGH (Hiccup)

    Inspiratory spasm caused by sudden contraction of diaphragm accompanied by loud closure of glottis.

    8. COUGH

    Violent expiration for expulsion of mucus and particles.

    9. WHOOPING COUGH (Pertussis)

    Cough with inspiratory whoop caused by Bordetella (Haemophilus) pertussis.

    10.BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Due to narrowing of bronchi and spams in bronchial muscles. The disorder is generally due to hypersensitivity of bronchioles to foreign substances. There is intense coughing and difficulty in exhalation. Mucous glands becomes over active producing a lot of mucus that clogs bronchioles and bronchi. Exposure to allergens should be avoided. Bronchodilators,
    inhalers and antibiotics are given for relief and protection against infection.

    11.HAY FEVER

    It is an allergic disorder of nasal lining. It develops due to hypersensitivity of the lining to pollen grains or any other foreign particles.

    12.ATELECTASIS

    It is an inability of lungs to expand at birth. This is mainly due to deficiency of surfactants.

    13. SILICOSIS

    It is due to long exposure to dust containing silicon compounds. Workers of glass industry, potters, gold and copper miners develop progressive fibrosis in the liver.

    14.ASBETOSIS

    It is due to inhalation of asbestos – fibres, which may result in cancer of pleura.

    15. DIPHTHERIA

    Infection of bacterium, corynebacterium diphtheria of upper respiratory tract that produces pseudomembrane in throat. Pseudomembrane obstructs breathing causing hypoxia.

    16. BRONCHITIS

    Inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia and seromucous gland and goblet cells. There is a regular coughing with thick greenish yellow sputum indicating infection and excessive secretion of mucus. It is commonly caused by viral infection of nasal tract followed by bacterial infection. The disorder is common in smokers and persons exposed to CO rich polluted air. Persons suffering from bronchitis should avoid smoke, irritating chemicals and pollutants. Bronchodilators provide symptomatic relief. Antibiotics are used to cure infection.

    17.CYANOSIS

    Bluish colouration of skin and mucous membranes due to reduced haemoglobin in blood.

    18. EPISTAXIS

    Nose bleed. Quite common due to any scratching of nasal membranes. Nasal membrane is highly vascular. Epistaxis can also occur due to hypertension.

    19. PHARYNGITIS

    Inflammation of Pharynx

    20. LARYNGITIS

    Inflammation of larynx.

    21. SNEEZING

    An involuntary, sudden, violent and audible expulsion of air through mouth and nose.

    22. YAWNING

    A deep involuntary inspiration with mouth open, often accompanied by act of stretching.

    23. SARS

    It is a killer atypical pneumonia called severe acute respiratory syndrome. The disease is caused by variant of common cold corona virus which spreads by droplet and other methods. There is an initial fever (100.4 Degree Fahrenheit ) , headache, body aches, dry cough and then difficult breathing.

    24. OCCUPATIONAL LUNG DISEASES

    I. Black lung: Affects coal workers

    II. Chronic Beryllium disease (CBD): It affects workers in a variety of metallurgical occupations.

    III. Byssinosis brown lung disease: It often affects cotton and textile workers when bacteria released from cotton or other material are inhaled and grow in lungs.

    IV. Occupational asthma: It can affect people who work with variety of materials, like dyes, resins, leather, latex, rubber, etc.

    – It is always advisable to undertake preventive measures in work place involving pollution risk by:

    (I). Reducing emission of harmful dust and chemicals

    (II). Using protective gear and clothing.

    (III). Short duties.

    (IV). Informing workers about risks and preventive measures.

    (V). Regular health check up.

    MOUTH SICKNESS

  • It is hypoxial or oxygen shortage syndrome, which occurs at altitude of 3500 meters and above. There is decrease in atmospheric pressure as well as oxygen content of atmosphere.
    Reduced atmospheric pressure, reduces the amount of air taken into the lungs during inspiration. Reduced oxygen contents reduces its partial pressure and rate of diffusion into the blood. Hypoxia increases. As a result, body obtains less O2 and therefore, produces lesser energy. However, requirement of energy at high altitude is higher due to low temperature and increased physical strain. Effects of deficient availability of energy begins to appear within 8-24 hours.

  • It is characterized by breathlessness, fast breathing, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, headache, muscular weakness and mental fatigue. After sometimes, the symptoms subside due to
    increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocytes that attracts more oxygen to form HbO2 even PO2 is lower. Soon rise in haemoglobin and erythrocytes count
    shall start.

    TERMS RELATED TO BREATHING

    (i) Euponea: Normal breathing

    (ii) Hypoponea: Slower breathing

    (iii) Hyperponea: Rapid breathing

    (iv) Apnoea: No breathing

    (v) Dyspnoea: Painful breathing

    (vi) Orthopnoea: Difficult breathing in horizontal position.

    (vii) Tachypnoea: Rapid shallow breathing.

    (viii) Polypnoea: Rapid deep breathing

    (ix) Hypercapnia: Excess of CO2 in blood.

    (x) Hypocapnia: Low CO2 concentration in blood.

    VISIT PART 2 : Respiratory System | EXCHANGE OF GASES
    VISIT PART 3 : Respiratory System | Respiration – its Types

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