[Named reaction or Name Reaction]
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions,
photochemical reactions and
In organic synthesis, organic reactions are used in the construction of new organic molecules. The production of many man-made chemicals such as drugs, plastics, food additives, fabrics depend on organic reactions.
Organic chemistry has a strong tradition of naming a specific reaction to its inventor or inventors and a long list of so-called named reactions. Some important Named Reactions are given below which is very important in all medical courses, and for competitive exams like JEE, GPAT, NEET, IIT,
Organic chemistry :- Name Reaction
Table of Contents
1. Sandmeyer Reaction
The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction which is used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts. This reaction is a method for substitution of an aromatic amino group by preparing diazonium salt that is followed by its displacement and copper salts often catalyze it.
2. Gattermann Reaction
Bromine and Chlorine can be present in the benzene ring by preparing the benzene diazonium salt solution with similar halogen acid present with copper powder. This is the Gattermann Reaction.
3. Balz-Schiemann Reaction
When arene-diazonium chloride is prepared with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated and decomposes to yield aryl fluoride which on heating.
4. Finkelstein Reaction
In the Finkelstein Reaction Alkyl iodides are prepared easily by the reaction of alkyl chlorides with
Nal in dry acetone.
5. Swarts Reaction
When alkyl chloride is heated in the presence of a metallic fluoride like AgF, Hg2F2, SbF3 or CoF2, we get alkyl fluoride
6. Wurtz Reaction
When Alkyl halides get reacted with sodium with dry ether, we get hydrocarbons that include the double number of carbon atoms present in the halide. This is known as the Wurtz Reaction.
7. Wurtz-Fittig Reaction
When a mixture of alkyl halide and aryl halide gets treated with sodium in dry ether, we get an alkyl arene.
8. Fittig Reaction
Aryl halides prepared with sodium in dry ether to give analogous compounds where two aryl groups joined.
9. Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction
Benzene is prepared with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride to give Alkylbenzene.
10. Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction
We get acyl benzene when an acyl halide is reacted with benzene in the presence of Lewis acids.
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11. Reimer-Tiemann Reaction
When preparing phenol with chloroform in the presence of sodium hydroxide, -CHO group is present at the ortho position of the benzene ring which results into salicylaldehyde.
12. Kolbe’s Reaction
Phenol reacts with sodium hydroxide to give sodium phenoxide which then reacts with carbon dioxide in acidic medium to give hydroxybenzoic acid.
13. Rosenmund Reduction
When Acyl chloride is hydrogenated to an aldehyde over a catalyst, known as Rosenmund catalyst which is either palladium or barium sulfate.
14. Stephen reaction
Nitriles with stannous chloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid reduced to the corresponding imine and give the corresponding aldehyde after hydrolysis.
15. Etard reaction
Chromyl chloride oxidizes methyl group to get chromium complex which on hydrolysis provides corresponding benzaldehyde.
16. Gatterman – Koch reaction
Benzene is prepared with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride to give benzaldehyde.
17. Clemmensen Reduction
In Clemmensen reduction, Carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones on treatment with zinc amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid reduced to CH2 group.
18. Wolff Kishner Reduction
Carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones on treatment with hydrazine which on heating with sodium hydroxide in a high boiling solvent (ethylene glycol) reduced to CH2 group.
19. Tollens’ test
Heating an aldehyde with fresh prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution produces a bright silver mirror due to the formation of silver metal.
20. Fehling’s test
Fehling’s solution A (aqueous copper sulfate) and Fehling solution B (alkaline sodium potassium tartrate) are mixed in equal amounts before the test. A reddish brown precipitate is obtained when an aldehyde is heated with Fehling’s reagent.
21. Aldol reaction
Aldehydes and ketones having one α-hydrogen undergo a reaction in the presence of dilute alkali as the catalyst to produce β-hydroxy aldehydes or β-hydroxy ketones.
22. Aldol condensation
Aldol and Ketol lose water to provide α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds which are aldol condensation products.
23. Cross aldol condensation
Aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and ketones. It gives a mixture of four products if both of them includes α-hydrogen atoms.
24. Cannizzaro reaction
Aldehydes without α-hydrogen atom undergo self-oxidation and reduction reaction when prepared with concentrated alkali.
25. Kolbe electrolysis
In Kolbe electrolysis, An aqueous solution of sodium or potassium salt of a carboxylic acid gives alkane containing an even number of carbon atoms on electrolysis.
26. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ )reaction
Carboxylic acids having a α-hydrogen are halogenated at the α-position give α-halo carboxylic acids on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus.
27. Gabriel phthalimide synthesis
Phthalimide prepared with ethanolic potassium hydroxide produces potassium salt of phthalimide when heated with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis forms the corresponding primary amine.
28. Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction
An amide with bromine in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide produces primary amines. Migration of an alkyl or aryl group takes place from carbonyl carbon of the amide to the nitrogen atom. The amine so produced include one carbon less than that present in the amide.
29. Carbylamine reaction
Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines when heated with chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide produces isocyanides or carbyl amines which are foul smelling substances.
30. Hinsberg’s Test
Benzenesulfonyl chloride (C6H5SO2Cl) reacts with primary and secondary amines to produce sulphonamides.
31. Coupling Reactions
Benzene diazonium chloride gets reacted with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para position is mixed with the diazonium salt to give p hydroxyazobenzene.
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